All users are allocated space on the
filesystems. In addition, separate
scratch directories are visible
from Summit and Blanca. These scratch directories are hosted on
separate, high-performance filesystems designed to support intensive,
parallel I/O operations.
Please note that the use of
high-performance I/O may negatively affect the environment for all
users. As a result, all compute jobs should write to the appropriate
scratch filesystem. Users performing intensive I/O on the
/projects filesystems will have their jobs terminated and may
have their accounts temporarily disabled.
The Home Filesystem¶
Every user is allocated 2 GB of space on the
/home filesystem in a
subdirectory corresponding to their user name (e.g.,
Home directories are backed up frequently and
are intended for the use of their owner only; sharing the contents of
home directories with other users is strongly discouraged. Your
/home directory is a good place to store source code, small compiled
programs, and job scripts.
The Projects Filesystem¶
Each user has access to a 250 GB of space in their subdirectory of
/projects/janedoe). As with the
these directories are visible from all Research Computing nodes and
are regularly backed up. The projects directory is intended to store
software builds and smaller data sets.
Summit users are provided a subdirectory on
high-performance parallel scratch filesystem meant for I/O from jobs
running on that system (e.g.,
/scratch/summit/janedoe). By default,
each user is limited to a quota of 10 TB worth of storage space and
20M files and directories. Email firstname.lastname@example.org if you need
these limits increased. Blanca users should write to
/rc_scratch/janedoe instead of
Scratch space should be used for all compute jobs run on Summit or Blanca. These high-performance scratch directories are not backed up, and are not appropriate for long-term storage. Data may be purged at any time subject to overall system needs. Files are automatically removed 90 days after their initial creation.
Users requiring longer-term retention of their files should perform regular backups to their local machine if they have not purchased space on the PetaLibrary. Inappropriate use of scratch storage, including attempts to circumvent the automatic file purge policy, may result in loss of access to Research Computing resources.
Local Scratch on Summit and Blanca¶
All Summit nodes and most Blanca nodes have a local scratch area exceeding 100GB ideal for heavily used temporary files. This directory can be accessed in a job script with the
$SLURM_SCRATCH variable. To ensure local scratch space remains free for subsequent jobs files placed in this directory will be removed automatically on job completion (successful or otherwise) and cannot be recovered. Therefore, before your job script exits it is important to copy any newly created files to a persistent file system such as your
As an example of how to use
$SLURM_SCRATCH, the following code copies a file to the temporary directory, operates on the file in some fashion creating a new file, then copies that new file back to the projects directory before the job ends.
cp /projects/user1234/job/tmp_file $SLURM_SCRATCH # Do stuff to tmp_file and generate new_file cp new_file /projects/user1234/job/new_file
Best practices for using CURC filesystems¶
Storage spaces on CURC, ordered by preference/performance for doing data Input/Output (I/O) during jobs:¶
- 100-800 GB/node
- Lowest contention of all RC storage resources (only shared with other jobs on the same node)
- Deleted when job terminates
/scratch/summit/$USER(Summit only) or
- 10 TB/user (Summit) or ~2 TB/user (Blanca)
- Data purged after 90 days
- Fee-based compute-capable storage platform
- 250 GB/user
- Only use if you have a few small files to do I/O on.
How to increase I/O performance:¶
- If you are running a job array and each job in the array will be reading the same dataset,
/pl/activeis not an optimal place for simultaneous reads (or writes). Instead, copy the data to
- If you need to read data from
/pl/activemore than once during a job, copy it to
$SLURM_SCRATCHat the beginning of the job and read it from there. Or. if the dataset is too big for
$SLURM_SCRATCH, copy it to
/rc_scratch/$USER(Blanca) and read it from there.
- If output files from one job need to be read by other compute jobs, write to
- All filesystems struggle to be performant with small file I/O. If you can choose between one file and 100 files for storing the same amount of data, you will see far better performance from the single large file.
- PetaLibrary (
/pl/active) is backed by ZFS, which is a Copy on Write filesystem. This means that ZFS does not ever modify a block in place. If you make a small change to a file, ZFS doesn’t change the underlying block, it copies the entire block and makes your change to the new block. Over time this leads to fragmentation and poor performance. When possible, copy data from
/rc_scratch/$USER(Blanca), compute against it, and copy data back to
/pl/active. This helps to avoid fragmentation and write amplification.
- If you reuse data within code, try to read it in once and keep it stored as a variable in memory, rather than repeatedly opening the same file each time you need the data (i.e., move file reads outside of “do loops”)
- Complex codes such as conda environments may not run optimally out of
/pl/active, although simple codes should be fine. If you have code on PetaLibrary and suspect the performace is being impacted, make a copy on
/projects/$USERand use that copy.
Monitoring Disk Usage¶
Disk usage may be checked using the
curc-quota command. When run
from a Summit
compile node, you will see output similar to:
[janedoe@shas0136 ~]$ curc-quota ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Used Avail Quota Limit ------------------------------------------------------------------------ /home/janedoe 1.7G 339M 2.0G /projects/janedoe 67G 184G 250G /scratch/summit 29G 10211G 10240G
If the command is run from a
login node, information concerning
/scratch/summit will be omitted.
Note that the space occupied by a particular directory and its
subdirectories can be obtained via the
du -h command:
[janedoe@shas0136 ~]$ du -h /scratch/summit/janedoe/WRF 698M WRF/run 698M WRF
Regular backups are performed for all
directories and at a range of cadences. Low-cadence backups are
retained for longer periods of time than high-cadence backups. A
summary of the backup schedule is provided in the table below.
||2 hr||25 hr|
||1 d||8 d|
||1 wk||29 d|
||6 hr||25 hr|
||1 d||8 d|
||1 wk||15 d|
If disaster strikes and you need access to a previous version of your
/projects directories, change to that directory and look
.snapshot hidden subdirectory. You will see a subdirectory
associated with each snapshot of your
directory, named using the time-stamp associated with the snapshot.
Note: The .snapshot directory is not visible to any utilities that list directory contents, so an ‘ls’ of the .snapshot directory will fail, although you can ‘cd’ to it.
All users have complete control over their personal directory
permissions. While we encourage you to share your
/scratch directories with collaborators as appropriate, we strongly
discourage sharing of your
/home directory due to the limited space
and potentially sensitive information stored there.
Directories may be shared with all Research Computing users or with only a subset of our users. In the latter case, a system administrator will need to add your chosen collaborators to your Linux group. Please email email@example.com if you would like to add users to your Linux group.
In the example that follows, we make our
/projects directory open to
all users and then create subdirectories with select read/write
permissions for all users and our chosen collaborators.
First, we make our
/projects directory world-readable:
[janedoe@shas0136 ~]$ chmod a+rx /projects/janedoe
Next, we create a subdirectory that is visible to all users and which is read-only:
[janedoe@shas0136 ~]$ cd /projects/janedoe [janedoe@shas0136 ~]$ mkdir world_read [janedoe@shas0136 ~]$ chmod a+rx world_read
For our collaborators, we may want a writeable directory in addition to a read-only directory:
[janedoe@shas0136 ~]$ cd /projects/janedoe [janedoe@shas0136 ~]$ mkdir group_read [janedoe@shas0136 ~]$ chmod g+rx group_read [janedoe@shas0136 ~]$ mkdir group_read_write [janedoe@shas0136 ~]$ chmod g+rwx group_read_write
A similar methodology will need to be followed for all subdirectories
you wish to share. If you make a mistake or change your mind, use the
- symbol in lieu of
+ to remove privileges. Note that the
necessary if you want other users to be able to
cd into your